1 edition of How damage to balsam fir develops after a spruce budworm epidemic found in the catalog.
by USDA, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station in Upper Darby
Written in English
|Statement||by Thomas F. McLintock|
|Series||Station paper / Northeastern forest experiment station -- no. 75, Station paper (Northeastern Forest Experiment Station (Radnor, Pa.)) -- no. 75.|
|Contributions||Northeastern Forest Experiment Station (Radnor, Pa.)|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||i, 18 pages ;|
|Number of Pages||18|
Endemic Spruce Budworm Populations 49 Epidemic Spruce Budworm Populations 52 Balsam fir is theprincipal host of budworm in eastern North it is thehost that suffers predators of the spruce budworm. Predaceous mammals include the rodents (Rodentia) such as voles and. Nevertheless, the spruce budworm is one of the most damaging native insects affecting spruces and true fir in Canada. During a major outbreak, tens of .
The insecticide Foray 48B (Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Berliner) was applied undiluted at 30 BIU per ha to control spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), in a mixed boreal forest stand of balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., and black spruce, Picea mariana (Mill.)B.S.P. When the treatment was timed to coincide with the early flushing of balsam fir shoots, the corrected Cited by: spruce budworm is the most destructive pest of spruce and fir forests in North America the larvae are wasteful feeders as they only eat partial needles and then move on to other needles spruce budworm prefers balsam fir, but the name is associated with spruce as white spruce is a more desirable species historically to the forest industry.
Reduce Damage From Western Spruce Budworm by Lawrence E. Stipe' Introduction The western spruce budworm has an annual life cycle of four stages—egg, larva, pupa, and adult (moths). The stages, damage caused by budworm, and host species are described and illustrated in Forest Pest Leaflet 53 by Fellin and Dewey (). The Eastern spruce budworm is the most widely distributed and destructive forest defoliator in North America. It has caused more damage to Nova Scotian softwood forests than any other insect. The spruce budworm causes the most damage in overmature balsam fir stands. White, black, and red spruce are also defoliated. OtherFile Size: KB.
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Introduction. Spruce budworm (SBW, Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem.]) outbreaks in immature (age ∼20–40 years) balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) stands typically result in an average of 42% mortality based on a review of 26 stands from various studies (MacLean, ).Mortality levels in immature balsam fir stands vary widely as a function of the local severity of SBW defoliation Cited by: 4.
mature to over-mature spruce and fir are lost to the budworm. Whether the fiber is utilized (by the forest industry for pulp, paper and other products);, or the trees fall down, or they are burned by wildfires, the forest naturally regenerates to abundant balsam fir, white spruce and hardwoods such as aspen and red maple that may occur on site.
Balsam fir is a pre-ferred host of spruce budworms and the most likely to die from repeated defolia-Nicholas C. Bolgiano, a statistician, helped to write the North American monitoring plan for Sharp-shinned Hawks for the U.S.
Fish & Wildlife Service, which led to his current research on the effects of the s spruce budworm Size: 1MB. Demography and spatial dynamics in balsam fir stands after a spruce budworm outbreak Article in Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41(5) April with 27.
Balsam Fir Cover Type Guidelines, Forest Development Manual,ed. 10/ BALSAM FIR Cover Type Guidelines. ROTATION AGES Rotation age on all sites should not exceed 50 years.
It is recommended not to exceed 40 to 45 years in the northeastern part of the state due to the extensive damage caused by spruce Size: 23KB. The province of Nova Scotia, Canada decided not to protect forests with insecticide treatments during the severe s–s spruce budworm outbreak, and suffered an average of 87% mortality in mature balsam fir stands .Mortality on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia coveredha, reduced the growing stock of spruce and fir by 70% or million m 3 , and increased the hardwood Author: David A.
MacLean. balsam, however, spruce may be severely injured or even killed. Ob servations indicate that in mixed stands containing a large proportion of balsam the spruce is likely to be defoliated.
Spruce as a rule is better able to recover from defoliation than balsam fir, owing in part. spruce results after three to four years of severe infestation. Complete tree mortality can often occur following five to six years of severe infestation.
Balsam fir, pos-sessing less foliage than spruce, may be killed after three years of severe feeding damage. CONTROL Various insecticides are used against the spruce budworm to protect valuable spruce and fir.
Spruce was the wood favored for pulp, and its removal allowed balsam to regenerate rapidly and thus crowding out the spruce.
Conditions were right for a severe budworm infestation, and browning of the spruce and fir needles was evident in the winter ofleading to.
Spruce budworm pupa Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Scorched top of balsam fir Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Description • Prefers to feed on needles in upper crown or those exposed to sun on trees of all sizes. • Prefers balsam fir, but readily feeds on white spruce. • Larvae present in late May through Size: 2MB. – Balsam fir: 50 years – Mixed balsam fir and white spruce: 50 years – White spruce: 70 years • Manage for even-aged, well-stocked stands • Avoid scattered residual overstories of host trees – Existing young balsam stands.
Height increment of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) regeneration during a spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) outbreak can be affected by a variety of variables including.
Spruce budworm is a native pest that is responsible for defoliating or killing vast acreages of balsam fir in Minnesota annually.
This adult moth lays eggs on the needles of balsam fir in July. The following May and June, budworm larvae hatch and feed on the foliage of the fir. to the spruce budworm (Thomas ).
After about 6 to 10 years, the spruce budworm declines to endemic levels (Royama, pers. comm.). However, due to the difference in vulnerability between white spruce and balsam fir, a much larger percentage of the seed-bearing balsam fir than white spruce has been killed by the spruce budworm.
The most recent budworm epidemic spread across northcentral Maine by and continued into the s. The resulting growth loss and spruce-fir mortality warranted research into the natural progression of the spruce budworm attack to aid in the development of protection strategies and harvest scheduling of affected by: The number of late-instar larvae captured in water traps was recorded throughout the dispersal period of the late instar larvae.
The data indicated that white spruce canopies contained 2 to 3 times more spruce budworm than balsam fir canopies. A similar pattern was found in the understory. Water traps under white spruce trees captured more than 3 times as many larvae as did those under balsam fir Family: Tortricidae.
The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a native insect that causes major damage to Maine’s spruce-fir forests on a regular cycle. Spruce budworm caterpillars feed on the buds and needles of fir and spruces.
Under normal (endemic) conditions populations of this insect are so low that spruce budworm is hard to find. White, red, and black spruce are suitable host trees and some feeding may occur on tamarack, pine, and hemlock. Spruce mixed with balsam fir is more likely to suffer budworm damage than spruce in pure stands.
Individual trees die after 1 or more years of heavy defoliation, depending on their general vigor. Balsam fir and white spruce are the preferred host species of the spruce budworm.
Red, black and Colorado spruce are also suitable host trees. On occasion, tamarack, pine, and hemlock may be fed upon. In Saskatchewan, spruce budworm feeds on white spruce, balsam fir and to a lesser extent black spruce, as well as the introduced Colorado Size: KB.
Damage, symptoms and biology The western spruce budworm is a damaging defoliator in British Columbia. Budworm feeding damage includes killing of mined buds by early-instar larvae and stripping of the current year's foliage primarily in the upper crown by mid- to late-instar larvae.
Figure 4.— Fourth-stage western spruce budworm larva feeding on Douglas-fir needles. Figure 5.— Female pupa of the western spruce budworm spun among dead needles and larval frass and webbing. Life History Throughout most of its range, the western spruce budworm completes one cycle of development from egg to adult within 12 months.
Moths File Size: KB.Introduction The spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a major insect defol- iator of softwood species in northeastern North America, balsam fir and white spruce being especially vulnerable.
Periodic increases of spruce budworm populations to epidemic levels have, in the past, resulted in significant tree mortality over millions of Cited by: Western spruce budworm is the most widely distributed forest defoliator in western North America.
Budworms have a one-year life cycle and are actually a small moth at full maturity. Here in the West, there can be severe infestations in healthy Douglas-fir, white fir and spruce.