2 edition of Glass tank refractories and their chemical relationship with the molten glass found in the catalog.
Glass tank refractories and their chemical relationship with the molten glass
|Statement||by Kai-Chung Lu.|
|Series||Ohio State University Studies. Engineering series = -- Engineering Experiment Station. Bulletin -- no.44, Ohio State University Studies -- no.44.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||ix, 40p. :|
|Number of Pages||40|
or chlorine can be contained in the monomer unit. The type of elements, their proportion and placing in the monomer molecule gives the basis for generating different plastics, as shown in Table The coupling between the atoms of a macromolecular chain happens by primary valence bonding . The backbone of the chain is built by carbon atoms. 1) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., Cleveland, Ohio 2) DMIC Report , Battelle Memorial Institute 3) Thermal Radiation .
Corrosion of Superalloys in Molten Glass—Electrochemical Characterization of the Passive State J. Di Martino, C. Rapin, R Berthod, R. Podor; and R Steinmetz Electrochemical Study of Cobalt-Base Superalloy Corrosion by a Molten Glass: Influence of Alloy Microstructure and Chemical Composition of the Glass . There are two pages for each corrodent - one containing the resistance of metals, glass, and carbon and the other containing the resistance of plastics and rubbers. This completely revised and updated edition includes all the most recent knowledge of corrosion mechanisms, the development of new chemical products, and new corrosion resistance.
Glass Tank Design. A Criticism. Some Experiments upon the Development of Sillimanite Refractories for Glass Making W. ANGUS MCINTYRE, BSc., The Composition of Glass suitable for Use with Automatic Glass-forming Machines. The Manufacture of Some Experimental Tank-blocks and their Behaviour in Service. chemical plants contains refractory metals. Alloys with gold and silver also High resistance to thermal shock. The stresses of rapid expansion due to heat would destroy most metal filaments in just a few on-off cycles. A tungsten filament, because of its high melting point and good non-sag characteristic, will withstand thousands of on-off.
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Get this from a library. Glass tank refractories and their chemical relationship with the molten glass. [Kai-Ching Lu]. Abstract The physical-chemical interactions at contact of molten glass with refractories in a glassmaking furnace, mostly electricity melted baddeleyite – corundum (bacor), are.
One of the outstanding characteristics of molten glass is its ability to chemically and physically attack the refractories which serve to contain the glass.
The physical attack usually consists of penetration of voids, cracks and joints by the molten glass or in some cases refractories may be abraded. Chemical corrosion is much more deleterious to the life of the refractories since it involves the dissolution of Cited by: 3.
A glass tank is a furnace used to melt glass on an industrial scale, in the form of a refractory-lined tank, filled with molten glass. The hottest areas of a glass tank typically operate at around °C, with the coldest areas around °C.
The key requirement for glass-contact refractories is resistance to corrosion by molten glass. molten glass, even to glasses with high alkali contents. forced convection in a glass tank, where the side blocks.
of AZS refractories is due to their microstructure and. the size and. The research papers presented in this volume are limited in the discussion of the physical and chemical reaction phenomena which occur in glass tank furnace and electric furnaces of other shapes.
The book comprises of six major chapters where some chapters further divide into two parts. The interaction of glass melts and refractories in industrial glass melting tanks has a large impact on the resulting glass quality.
The mostly applied type of refractory in the glass industry, in direct contact with the glass melt, is fused cast AZS (Alumina Zirconia silicate). Due to the interaction of the glass melt with fused cast AZS refractory, different kinds of.
Refractories are heat resistant materials used in almost all processes involving high temperatures and/or corrosive environment. These are typically used to insulate and protect industrial furnaces and vessels due to their excellent resistance to heat, chemical attack and mechanical damage.
Figure 3. SEM backscatter electron image of white defects. The beads’ interiors are an alumina/silica/zirconia composition with no sodium (1), while their outer zone contains some sodium diffused from tank glass (2). The zirconia (ZrO2) snowflake crystals are remnants of beads after alumina and silica dissolved into the tank glass.
Thermal Energy Equipment: Furnaces and Refractories Porosity: The apparent porosity is the volume of the open pores, into which a liquid can penetrate, as a percentage of the total volume of the refractory.
This property is important when the refractory is in contact with molten charge and slag. A low apparent porosity prevents molten. Among such fused cast refractories, especially, refractories whose major component is zirconia (ZrO 2) are provided with good corrosion resistance against molten glass, and therefore, fused cast refractories having much content of ZrO 2 are preferably employed for glass tank furnaces.
Industrial glass - Industrial glass - Properties of glass: At ordinary temperatures, glass is a nearly perfect elastic solid, an excellent thermal and electrical insulator, and very resistant to many corrosive media.
(Its optical properties, however, vary greatly, depending on the light wavelengths employed.) The more or less random order of atoms is ultimately responsible for many of the. In fact, molten glass is sometimes referred to as a universal solvent.
Keeping refractory stones from getting into the glass bath is extremely important in the quality control of glass. In addition to the molten glass, the atmosphere above the glass bath is extremely corrosive to refractories.
The physical and chemical properties of refractories that are in direct contact with molten glass plays a key role in the determination of the quality of glass products.
During their lifetime, the refractories are exposed to chemically aggressive nature of the molten glass and, even more importantly to thermal and mechanical stresses. Fused alumina-chromia refractories containing MgO-Cr spinel and alumina-chromia solid solution phase were also developed for use in tanks producing fibber glass, a particularly corrosive molten glass.
Cooper et al  investigated the influence of tank glass redox conditions on the corrosion of such refractories at ° C. Molten glass attack on refractories. Liquid/solid abrasion in pipes.
Wear of raw materials parts and abrasive wear during paper manufacture. Wear of refractories in tanks and on handling, molds, and process machinery. Wear of dies. Because all of the IOF industries use or generate heat as part of their processes, refractories are crucial. Interaction between CaO–Al 2 O 3 –SiO 2 leads to the formation of phases with low melting point temperatures, such as gehlenite or anorthite.
Nanomaterials in shaped refractories raise the surface energy making them more reactive. Thus, their resistance to corrosion and thermal shock can be improved if the interaction of nano-phases with the other particles is favorably adapted .
Since fused cast refractories are provided with excellent corrosion resistance against molten glass, fused cast refractories have been employed mainly at portions contacting molten glass of a glass tank furnace. You can write a book review and share your experiences.
Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. Millimeter-wave molten glass turbulence is a significant feature at viscosity below Poise.
The viscosity measurement development work is currently ongoing to optimize measurement methods and techniques, and to obtain additional data on other glasses. PNNL: Work at PNNL has focused on molten glass conductivity – chemistry relationships and. Forty-seven papers offer new solutions to the challenges of glass manufacturing, particularly as they pertain to melting and forming.
Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Advances in Fusion and Processing of Glass, July, Rochester, New York; Ceramic Transactions, Volume • TC11 & TC14 Test procedure for blistering from tank refractories in contact with molten glass • TC11, TC14 and TC21 sessions at XXII ICG congress in Bahia, Brazil, September • TC13 Dust characterization in flue gases of glass furnaces • TC13 Testing availability of dangerous compounds from glass (leaching tests) in.What is the relationship between the coastlines on the east side of the Atlantic and those on the west side?
A. There is no relationship. B. They are identical. C. Continents on the east side could fit snugly against those on the west.
D. Their wave, current, and tidal energy are the same.